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Articles on American Foreign Policy

American Values in Conflict: Democracy vs. Empire

This paper was published in the Journal of American Studies in Spring 2005.  It was presented at the American Studies Association of Korea meeting in October 2004 in Seoul, Korea.

I. The Ideology of Democracy and the Reality of American Foreign Policy
II. Formal vs. Informal Empire
III. The United States against Democracy in the Cold War
IV. The Contradictions of Imposing Democracy from Abroad
V. Empire as a Way of Life: Empire vs. Democracy on the Home Front
VI. Hegemony, Empire, or World Order?
VII. American Imposed Regime Change or Democracy on a Global Scale

From the Cold War into the 21st Century:
Change and Continuity in American Hegemonic Strategy

I. Continuity in American Hegemonic Strategy
II. Hegemonic Strategy in the Early Cold War
III. Shifting Strategy in the Later Cold War
IV. Hegemonic Habits in the Post-Cold War World
V. The Terrorism War: Comparison to the Early Cold War
VI. Lessons from the Conclusion of the Cold War

The Bush Administration and the Nuclear Issue on the Korean Peninsula

The Bush Administration and the Range of Policy Options toward North Korea

This paper was published as part of the European and Intercultural Discourses series, May 2005.

I. Bush Administration Policies toward North Korea
     Key Events in Bush Administration Policy toward North Korea
     Conflicting Demands on U.S. Policy Toward North Korea
II. Possible Long-term Outcomes on the Korean Peninsula
III. Three Policy Approaches to the DPRK and Their Possible Outcomes
IV. Lessons of History for the Korean Peninsula

The U.S.-North Korea Relationship after the 2004 Presidential Election

The early days of the second Bush term will likely see more temporizing and malign neglect because the contradictory policy pressures apparent in the first term endure.  Neoconservatives will still seek greater confrontation and eventual regime change.  The realities of the region are that South Korea and China in particular will exert strong pressures to avoid confrontation and pursue negotiation.  The U.S. will still be distracted by the conflict in Iraq and perhaps by new developments in Palestine and/or Iran as well.

The Bush Administration, the North Korean Nuclear Crisis, and the Future of Multilateralism in Northeast Asia

This paper was published in the Ritsumeikan Journal of Asia Pacific Studies , Vol. 16, Spring 2005.

American hegemony is based on a global system of alliances and multilateral institutions, yet the U.S. has always set itself above these international institutions as the sole righteous judge of international conduct.  The Bush administration’s foreign policy expresses the same contradictions—desire for international support but willingness to act without it.  In the East Asian region, during the Clinton administration America’s hegemonic alliance systems were supplemented by  a more inclusive and expansive regional multilateralism.  Some foresaw a post-hegemonic American strategy of deepening regionalism and multilateralism.  However, the Bush administration doctrine of unilateral preemption of threats puts in doubt the whole process of East Asian integration.  If this doctrine were applied to North Korea it could repolarize the region.  The inclusion of North Korea in the axis of evil has been supplanted by demands for multilateral talks.  This is a more positive approach, but it is not yet clear whether the U.S. and North Korea are ready to make the necessary compromises.

Two Visions of Convergence in Northeast Asia: The Bush Administration, North Korean Nuclear Weapons, and Regional Powers

This paper was published in the Journal of American Studies in Spring 2004.  It was presented at the American Studies Association of Korea meeting in October 2003.

The economic and political integration of East Asia has been dramatic yet the North Korean nuclear crisis threatens to reverse this progress.  While each nation in the region has its own unique set of interests and perspectives on the Korean nuclear issue, divisions between progressives and conservatives over how to deal with the crisis cross national boundaries.  Two different views of how to further regional convergence and resolve the North Korean nuclear crisis have emerged.  A vision of evolutionary, multilateral regional convergence sees parallel interests of all the nations in the region in economic growth, political stability, and a non-nuclear Korea, and believes these interests can be satisfied through multilateral negotiation.  This view has been challenged by the hard-liners in the Bush administration who seek rapid regime change in the North and resurgence of American hegemony in the Asia Pacific.  Rapid regime change in the North is unlikely to be realized, and if it were to occur, it would likely be massively destabilizing, imposing massive costs on both Koreas and repolarizing the Northeast Asia region.   The U.S. and its allies need to recognize the reform dilemma North Korea faces.  True reform of the North cannot come until progress is made on the fundamental security issues.  The most hopeful sign is that recently the Bush administration has muted its calls for regime change and begun to work through six party talks toward a negotiated settlement.

Other Recent Publications

Myths and Realities about the "New" Terrorism

This article appeared in the Kyunghee Institute for Peace journal, Peace Forum, in Spring 2003

Globalization and the American Way of Thinking

This paper was presented at the Myongji Conference on Globalization in Fall 2002

Leadership and Hegemony in the 2000 American Presidential Election: Issues Affecting East Asia

This paper was published in the Journal of American Studies in Winter 2000.  It was presented at the American Studies Association of Korea meeting in October 2000 in Wonju, Korea.

The Power of Presidential Ideologies

In 1992 I published a study of  how political ideas influenced presidential policies from Franklin Roosevelt through the first George Bush.  I have updated and greatly expanded the original version with new text, graphics, and links that make use of the power of the internet as a research and educational tool.

Click on Table of Contents for links to individual chapters.