Articles on American
American Values in Conflict: Democracy vs. Empire
This paper was published in the Journal of American Studies
in Spring 2005. It was presented at the American Studies Association
of Korea meeting in October 2004 in Seoul, Korea.
I. The Ideology of Democracy and the Reality of American Foreign
II. Formal vs. Informal Empire
III. The United States against Democracy in the Cold War
IV. The Contradictions of Imposing Democracy from Abroad
V. Empire as a Way of Life: Empire vs. Democracy on the Home Front
VI. Hegemony, Empire, or World Order?
VII. American Imposed Regime Change or Democracy on a Global Scale
From the Cold War into the 21st Century:
Change and Continuity in
American Hegemonic Strategy
I. Continuity in American Hegemonic Strategy
II. Hegemonic Strategy in the Early Cold War
III. Shifting Strategy in the Later Cold War
IV. Hegemonic Habits in the Post-Cold War World
V. The Terrorism War: Comparison to the Early Cold War
VI. Lessons from the Conclusion of the Cold War
The Bush Administration and
the Nuclear Issue on the Korean Peninsula
The Bush Administration
and the Range of Policy Options toward North Korea
This paper was published as part of the European
and Intercultural Discourses series, May 2005.
I. Bush Administration Policies toward North Korea
Key Events in Bush Administration Policy toward North
Conflicting Demands on U.S. Policy Toward North Korea
II. Possible Long-term Outcomes on the Korean Peninsula
III. Three Policy Approaches to the DPRK and Their Possible Outcomes
IV. Lessons of History for the Korean Peninsula
The U.S.-North Korea Relationship after the 2004 Presidential Election
The early days of the second Bush term will likely see
more temporizing and malign neglect because the contradictory policy pressures
apparent in the first term endure. Neoconservatives will still seek
greater confrontation and eventual regime change. The realities of
the region are that South Korea and China in particular will exert strong
pressures to avoid confrontation and pursue negotiation. The U.S. will
still be distracted by the conflict in Iraq and perhaps by new developments
in Palestine and/or Iran as well.
The Bush Administration, the North Korean Nuclear Crisis, and the Future
of Multilateralism in Northeast Asia
This paper was published in the
Vol. 16, Spring 2005.
American hegemony is based on a global system
of alliances and multilateral institutions, yet the U.S. has always set itself
above these international institutions as the sole righteous judge of international
conduct. The Bush administration’s foreign policy expresses the same
contradictions—desire for international support but willingness to act without
it. In the East Asian region, during the Clinton administration America’s
hegemonic alliance systems were supplemented by a more inclusive and
expansive regional multilateralism. Some foresaw a post-hegemonic
American strategy of deepening regionalism and multilateralism. However,
the Bush administration doctrine of unilateral preemption of threats puts
in doubt the whole process of East Asian integration. If this doctrine
were applied to North Korea it could repolarize the region. The inclusion
of North Korea in the axis of evil has been supplanted by demands for multilateral
talks. This is a more positive approach, but it is not yet clear whether
the U.S. and North Korea are ready to make the necessary compromises.
Two Visions of Convergence in Northeast Asia: The Bush Administration,
North Korean Nuclear Weapons, and Regional Powers
This paper was published in the Journal of American Studies in Spring 2004.
It was presented at the American Studies Association of Korea meeting
in October 2003.
The economic and political integration of East
Asia has been dramatic yet the North Korean nuclear crisis threatens to
reverse this progress. While each nation in the region has its own
unique set of interests and perspectives on the Korean nuclear issue, divisions
between progressives and conservatives over how to deal with the crisis cross
national boundaries. Two different views of how to further regional
convergence and resolve the North Korean nuclear crisis have emerged.
A vision of evolutionary, multilateral regional convergence sees parallel
interests of all the nations in the region in economic growth, political stability,
and a non-nuclear Korea, and believes these interests can be satisfied through
multilateral negotiation. This view has been challenged by the hard-liners
in the Bush administration who seek rapid regime change in the North and
resurgence of American hegemony in the Asia Pacific. Rapid regime change
in the North is unlikely to be realized, and if it were to occur, it would
likely be massively destabilizing, imposing massive costs on both Koreas
and repolarizing the Northeast Asia region. The U.S. and its
allies need to recognize the reform dilemma North Korea faces. True
reform of the North cannot come until progress is made on the fundamental
security issues. The most hopeful sign is that recently the Bush administration
has muted its calls for regime change and begun to work through six party
talks toward a negotiated settlement.
and Realities about the "New" Terrorism
This article appeared in the Kyunghee Institute for Peace journal,
Peace Forum, in Spring 2003
and the American Way of Thinking
This paper was presented at the Myongji Conference on Globalization
in Fall 2002
Leadership and Hegemony in the 2000 American Presidential Election: Issues
Affecting East Asia
This paper was published in the Journal of American Studies
in Winter 2000. It was presented at the American Studies Association
of Korea meeting in October 2000 in Wonju, Korea.
The Power of Presidential Ideologies
In 1992 I published a study of how political ideas influenced
presidential policies from Franklin Roosevelt through the first George Bush.
I have updated and greatly expanded the original version with new text,
graphics, and links that make use of the power of the internet as a research
and educational tool.
Table of Contents
for links to individual chapters.